Abstract: Both rectum and anus are the lowermost part of the large intestine and it is also very prone to having common problems. This includes diseases like abscesses, cancer, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, polyps, and many more.
It is also very important to differentiate and diagnose the problem and it can be only done through tests like a colonoscopy. It is the test that helps in finding out any kind of abnormalities present in the large intestine.
The device used in it is a flexible tube and long which is inserted into the rectum. There is a tiny camera attached to it which helps in the recording. Through this article we are going to discuss more it and why it is done.
When Colonoscopy is needed?
As we all know that it is important to know the early diagnosis of the disease as this can help in telling the accuracy of the disease. It is a safe procedure and before this surgery, it is important to follow a strict diet along with the laxatives are given.
It is done when you have some common symptoms like blood, mucus, or pus while passing stool with unexplained stool. Here are some medical conditions that are diagnosed through colonoscopy:-
1. Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that leads to inflammation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract.
It leads to symptoms like diarrhea along with bleeding or pus, pain in the rectum region, cramps, always having the urge to pass stool, losing weight, fever, etc.
During the test, you might find some erupted vascular marking, edematous as well as fragility mucosa.
2. Crohn’s Disease
This is also a type of IBD which results in swelling in the digestive tract resulting in weakness, malnutrition, pain in the abdomen, and diarrhea.
This disorder is quite painful and can also lead to life-threatening situations.
This is commonly seen in both large as well as the small intestine and can gradually increase without any warning. During a colonoscopy, it finds that there is redness and swollen ulcer present on the lining of the intestine.
3. Colorectal Cancer
This type of cancer is seen in the colon and the rectum, this commonly starts as a polyp. This includes different types of polyps including:-
- Adenomatous types of polyps have rare chances of turning into cancer but it could be a symbol of precancerous conditions.
- Sessile, as well as Traditional serrated adenomas, have a higher risk of having colorectal cancer.
- Inflammatory and Hyperplastic polyps but they are not cancerous.
How to Prepare for Colonoscopy
Many steps are done before doing the procedure and here are the steps that the doctor may ask you including
- Following a strict diet:- It is told to the patient that they should avoid taking solid foods. It is better to consume liquids including tea or coffee but without milk and water. Any kind of red drink should be avoided as this might lead to misdiagnosing as it might confuse the doctor thinking that its blood.
- Consuming Laxative:- Doctors mostly tell you to take laxatives either in a liquid or in a pill form. It is better to take laxatives the night before the procedures and then it is done on the other morning.
- Using the Enema Kit:- In some of the cases enema kit is also used a few hours before the examination. This helps in emptying the colon but this is not the primary way of clearing out the colon.
- It is also important to note that if you are taking any kind of medication then you should inform your doctor. Especially people who are taking medicine for high blood pressure, problems related to the heart, or being diabetic.
What is commonly done During the Procedure?
Before the procedure, a sedative pill is given as it will help in minimizing the discomfort feeling as well as pain. Then the procedure is done where the patient lies down and the examination begins.
The tube is almost as long as the colon is inserted and it also helps in pumping carbon dioxide which helps in inflating. The scope consists of a tiny camera and through that images are monitored on the screen.
Sometimes this procedure is also helpful in taking out a sample of tissue to rule out if it’s cancerous or not. The typical procedure of colonoscopy lasts for almost 30 to 60 minutes.
After the examination, the patient starts to recover and it takes half an hour from sedation. Also afterward you might need to follow a simple diet only for a few days to avoid any kind of bloating.
Some of the tips for protecting your Colon:-
- Changes in Lifestyle:- It is important to eat more vegetables, fruits, and also whole grains in your diet. Avoid any kind of oily or fatty or processed foods and also reduce processed meat. Exercise daily, limit the consumption of alcohol and along with that reduce any type of smoking.
- Getting Accurate Results:- Always follow the instructions told you by the doctor, especially before the procedure. It will help in protecting your colon from any kind of harm during the procedure.
- Alternatives:- If you are at risk of developing cancer then it is important to also consider other kinds of procedures too. Other tests that can help in diagnosing include sigmoidoscopy, CT colonography, or X-ray. Along with that stool tests can also help in finding the trace of blood or mucus.
- Some Important Signs:- If any of the bowel symptoms last more than a week then you must visit a doctor. This includes symptoms like bleeding while passing stool, constipation, diarrhea, weakness, anemia, or weight loss.
The rectum and Anus is the part of our intestine which helps us in removing waste products in the form of stool from the body. This part is commonly seen with different disorders as mentioned above which could be life-threatening.
It is very important to diagnose the disease and this can be easily done through colonoscopy which is one safest way to get a prognosis.